Infertility is a condition that affects both men and women for a variety of reasons. Female infertility is common, whereas male infertility is rarely discussed, particularly in India. Even though it is a medical condition that prevents women from having children, some regions in India do not recognise it as such, instead viewing it as a discriminatory and stigmatizing issue.

A woman who is unable to conceive is dependent not only on herself, but also on men. Men can experience infertility for a variety of reasons. Let us talk about it to learn more.

Male and female infertility

Women infertility

In India, approximately 28 million women are affected by infertility.. It is a complex issue that can have a variety of causes, including hormonal imbalances, problems with the reproductive organs, or underlying medical conditions. Infertility can have a profound impact on a woman’s emotional and mental well-being, as well as on her relationships and overall quality of life. However, with advances in medical technology and fertility treatments, many women are able to overcome infertility and achieve their dream of starting a family. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to improving the chances of success.

Fallopian tube

The fallopian tube is a female reproductive organ that connects the ovaries to the uterus. It is a narrow tube that is lined with cilia, tiny hair-like projections that help move the egg towards the uterus. The fallopian tube plays a crucial role in fertilization, as it is where the sperm typically meets the egg. After fertilization, the fertilized egg then travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it can implant and develop into a fetus. Any damage or blockage to the fallopian tube can impact a woman’s fertility, making it difficult to conceive naturally.In the event of a pregnancy, the fallopian tubes are crucial. As a result, when they are partially or completely blocked or damaged, the chances of women becoming pregnant are drastically reduced. Tube damage can be caused by surgical issues, ectopic pregnancy, or endometriosis.


Endometriosis is a medical condition that affects the reproductive system in women. It occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it, causing inflammation and pain. This tissue can attach to other organs in the pelvic area, such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes, and can cause scarring and infertility. Endometriosis can cause severe pain during menstrual periods, intercourse, and bowel movements. It is a chronic condition that affects millions of women worldwide, and it can significantly impact their quality of life. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.. Endometrial tissues may enter the abdominal tissue and attach themselves to the organ.

Hormonal imbalance

Hormonal imbalances can be a common cause of infertility in both men and women. In women, hormonal imbalances can affect ovulation and prevent the release of eggs necessary for fertilization. Common hormonal imbalances that affect fertility in women include thyroid disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and irregular menstrual cycles. In men, hormonal imbalances can affect sperm production and quality, and can be caused by conditions such as hypogonadism or pituitary disorders. Treatment for hormonal imbalances may involve lifestyle changes, medications, or hormone therapy to regulate hormone levels and improve fertility. Seeking medical advice from a fertility specialist can help diagnose and treat hormonal imbalances related to infertility.

Other causes of female infertility include tube abnormalities and antibodies against sperm and oocytes.

Men infertility

In India, approximately 20 million men are infertile. Male infertility refers to a man’s inability to father a child due to low sperm count, abnormal sperm function, or other issues related to sperm health. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, and lifestyle choices such as smoking, drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Male infertility can be diagnosed through semen analysis and other tests, and treatment options include medications, lifestyle changes, and assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Men experiencing infertility should seek the guidance of a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and discuss appropriate treatment options.

Imperfect sperm maturation

Male infertility can begin with sperm maturation problems. Perfect production requires a normal percentage of 20 milligrammes per millilitre and 30% normal formed sperm. Sperm maturation is hampered when the number is reduced. Low-quality sperm cannot enter oocytes due to a variety of factors such as the environment, tobacco use, endocrine disorders, and so on.

Vas deferens

The vas deferens is a tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra in the male reproductive system. It is a long, muscular tube that is responsible for propelling sperm through the male reproductive tract during ejaculation. The vas deferens plays a critical role in male fertility and is essential for natural conception. In some cases, the vas deferens may be obstructed or damaged, leading to male infertility. Treatment options for vas deferens issues may include surgical intervention or assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI). Just as fallopian tube defects cause infertility in women, vas deferens obstruction prevents sperm cells from entering the woman’s body. Causes include vasectomy and epididymitis.

Does India accepts it?

While India is still lagging behind in terms of accepting infertile women and men, the stigma surrounding alternative options such as IVF and surrogacy persists. It is past time for people to accept and embrace surrogacy and IVF because for some, these options can bring new life and purpose to their lives.

MediPocket World raises awareness about surrogacy among Indians and hopes to assist every other Indian couple in bringing a bundle of joy into their home.

Subscribe to learn more.


Leave a reply